Hindu and Islam, from the of arrival of the Arabs as far back as the eighth century AD, has had a checkered history.

During the Muslim conquests, Islam gained many converts on the India primarily from Hinduism or Buddhism; the two dominant local religions. Inter-marriage and immigration from other Islamic lands have helped in instilling this idea in the people of greater India. Many of the new Muslim rulers looked down upon the idea Hinduism as having Iconodulistic religious practices and were to various degrees Iconoclastic. Prominent examples of these are Mahmud of Ghazni and the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb on either end of the timeline for Islamic rulers. In addition, Muslims in India also developed a caste system that divided the Arab-descended "Ashraf" Muslims and the "Ajlaf" converts, with the "Arzal" untouchables at the lowest rung The term "Arzal" stands for "degraded" and the Arzal castes are further subdivided into Bhanar, Halalkhor, Hijra, Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehtar etc.

In contrast there were also many Muslim kings who wished to live in harmony with the Hindus for interests of the Islamic empire. Akbar and Ibrahim Adil Shah II of Bijapur Adil Shah dynasty are notable examples. Akbar's court was home to intellectuals and saints both Hindu and Muslim, among them the great musician Tansen who converted to Islam, and he (Akbar) even went so far as to try and create a new religion (the din ilahi) to create a rapprochement of both creeds for creating a stable empire. Contrary to popular belief Akbar, continued the policy of Babur and Humayun in the destruction of Hindu temples. It is recorded by Bayazid Biyat, personal attendant of Humayun, that Akbar gave two villages for the upkeep of a mosque and a Madrasa which was setup by destroying a Hindu temple, this was done under the supervision of 'Todar Mal' who was highly regarded Hindu minister (vizir) of Akbar. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, does not credit Akbar for saving the temple instead gives credit to the "infidels" for building their own temple by demolishing the mosque. Akbar's army was responsible for demolition of rich Hindu temples which had gold idols in the Doab region between Ganga and Yamuna. Hindu is a complex and sonorous blend of Vedic notions of sound, raga and tala and absorbed a many instruments of either Middle Eastern origin or Indian-Muslim invention such as the Ghazal


10.Muhammad in World Scriptures by Maulana Abdul Haq Vidyarthi 11. 12.

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