Abraham Dharma

Map showing the prevalence of Abraham (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country.

In Islam, Muhammad is the last and final prophet of God. Islam views Jews, Christians and Muslims as "People of the Book" as all three major faiths are part of the Abrahams. Muslims also believe Adam (Bible), Noah, Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus were prophets. However, Muslims do not consider any Sikh or Gurus as prophets.

Sikhism is part of the Dharmic religions, the others being Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.

Many Islam ruled parts of the Indian subcontinent starting from the 12th century. The prominent ones include the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526) and the Mughal Empire (1526–1857), with which the Sikh gurus frequently came into direct confrontation, however these empires helped in the spread of Islam in South Asia, but by the mid-18th century, the British Empire had ended the Mughal dynasty.

Sikhism arose in a climate that was heavily influenced by the Bhaktism and Sufism. Nanak was its founder; although born a Hindu, he was thoroughly conversant with both Hindu and Islamic texts. The Guru contains the teachings of Sikhs Gurus along with the teachings, philosophies and beliefs of Eleven Hindu Saintsand four Sufi saints including Kabir. Sikh religious philosophy accepts some aspects of Sufism, and rejects most of them.

The Gurus and their Muslim contemporariesEdit

Guru Nanak's preachings were directed with equal force to all humans regardless of their religion. As such he freely borrowed religious terminology from the lexicons of both faiths, sometimes redefining them. As part of his preaching against communalism summarized by the famous phrase, "There is no Hindu and no Muslim," Nanak defined a Muslim as follows:

To be a Muslim is difficult; if one really be so, then one may be called a Muslim. Let one first love the religion of saints, and put aside pride and self as the file removes rust. Let him accept the religion of his authorities, and dismiss anxiety regarding death or life; Let him heartily obey the will of God, worship the Creator and efface himself. When he is kind to all men, then Nanak, he shall indeed be a Muslim.
He also said, "if you make good works the creed you repeat, you shall be a Muslim," and "act according to the Qur'an and your sacred books." Similarly, in a song about maqam,Guru Nanak defines the transformation of man, after which he is established in permanent union with God.

SHALOK, FIRST MEHL: It is difficult to be called a Muslim; if one is truly a Muslim, then he may be called one. First, let him savor the religion of the Prophet as sweet; then, let his pride of his possessions be scraped away. Becoming a true Muslim, a disciple of the faith of Mohammed, let him put aside the delusion of death and life. As he submits to God’s Will, and surrenders to the Creator, he is rid of selfishness and conceit. And when, O Nanak, he is merciful to all beings, only then shall he be called a Muslim. Allah is hidden in every heart; reflect upon this in your mind. The One Lord is within both Hindu and Muslim; Kabir proclaims this out loud. Be kind and compassionate to me, O Creator Lord. Bless me with devotion and meditation, O Lord Creator. Says Nanak, the Guru has rid me of doubt. The Muslim God Allah and the Hindu God Paarbrahm are one and the same. To be Muslim is to be kind-hearted, and wash away pollution from within the heart. He does not even approach worldly pleasures; he is pure, like flowers, silk, ghee and the deer-skin. || 13 || One who is blessed with the mercy and compassion of the Merciful Lord, is the manliest man among men. He alone is a Shaykh, a preacher, a Haji, and he alone is God’s slave, who is blessed with God’s Grace. || 14 || The Creator Lord has Creative Power; the Merciful Lord has Mercy. The Praises and the Love of the Merciful Lord are unfathomable. Realize the True Hukam, the Command of the Lord, O Nanak; you shall be released from bondage, and carried across. I am not a Hindu, nor am I a Muslim. My body and breath of life belong to Allah — to Raam — the God of both. || 4 || Says Kabir, this is what I say: meeting with the Guru, my Spiritual Teacher, I realize God, my Lord and Master.
According to Sikh tradition, while in Baghdad as part of his journey to Mecca and Medina, Guru Nanak had extensive dialogue with Muslim scholars there. In one discourse with a pir there, Nanak proclaimed his belief that - in contradistinction to the Qur'anic belief regarding seven firmaments and fourteen regions - there are innumerable earths, each with intelligent beings. {C}The Muslim rulers of the Lodi dynasty and the first Mughals were too concerned with consolidating their respective rules, and Akbar's liberalism led him to establish cordial relations with all religious communities in India. Some sikhs eat various non-Halal meat, although Sikhs only serve vegetarian food in Sikh temples. Sikhs do not believe in pilgrimages; Muslims, in contrast, consider Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) a crucial part of the faith.

The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام), are the five duties incumbent to every Muslim. These duties are Shahadah (profession of faith), Salah (ritual prayer), Zakah (alms tax), Sawm (fasting during Ramadan), and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). These five practices are essential to Sunni Islam. Shīˤī subscribe to eight ritual practices, which substantially overlap with the Five Pillars. Twelvers also have five fundamental beliefs which relates to Aqidah. The concept of five pillars is taken from the Hadith collections, notably those of Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. The Qur'an does not speak of five pillars, although one can find in it scattered references to their associated practices.

The Five Symbols of the Khalsa or Five Kakkars are Kirpan, Kangha, Kes, Kara and Kacchera, meaning the wearing of a short sword, the wearing of a comb, uncut hair, the wearing of a symbolic bangle and characteristic shorts or underpants respectively.

Islamic predestinationEdit

In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what God has decreed for us: He is our protector'…" For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. In Islamic theology, divine preordainment does not suggest an absence of God's indignation against evil, because any evils that do occur are thought to result in future benefits men may not be able to see. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".

The Shīˤa understanding of predestination is called "divine justice" (adalah). This doctrine, developed in Sunnism as well by the Mu'tazila, stresses the importance of man's responsibility for his own actions. In contrast, the Sunni deemphasize the role of individual free will in the context of God's creation and foreknowledge of all things.

Sufism as a whole is primarily concerned with direct personal experience, and as such may be compared to various forms of mysticism such as Bhaktism form of Hinduism, Hesychasm, Zen, Kabbalah, Gnosticism and Christian.

There are also other major differences in Islam and Sikhism. The Qur'an as in the Bible describes God as merciful and beneficent, though frequently angry. In the Adi Granth, this is not an attribute of God, who is described as merciful but fair., unlike Muhammad, who preached of a Qiyamah. Regarding heaven and hell, Sikhs believe that heaven and hell are both in this world, where everyone reaps the fruits of Karma. Sikhs are instructed to neither desire heaven nor fear hell, both being the fruit of ego, but to transcend both and merge one's soul directly with God. The Sikh has to rise above ego in order to escape uncontrolled transmigration of the soul Having done so, the soul retains its identity; man and God are never ontologically identical.

Sufi saints in holy Guru Granth SahibEdit

  • Bhagat Beni
  • Bhagat Bhikhan

Bhai Mardana: Muslim follower of Guru NanakEdit

Bhai Mardana (1459-1534) was a Muslim and the first follower and companion of the Sikh founder, Guru Nanak Dev. He was with Nanak in all of his journeys across India and Asia.

There are, however, tensions that remain in UK between Sikhs and Muslims regarding Allegations that some Sikhs have been forced to convert to Islam.

Similarities common in Islam and SikhismEdit


ISLAM : The Prophet (saas) attached the greatest importance to cleanliness, and therefore, to his hair and beard too. It is reported in some sources that he always carried with him a comb, mirror, miswak (a small natural toothbrush), tooth-pick, scissors and a kuhl bottle.88 The Prophet (saas) advised his companions to do the same, and said: "He who has hair should honor it."89 Some other reports that have reached us of his hair and beard are:

SIKHISM:The Five Ks of Sikhism, Kesh is uncut clean hair, Kangha a wooden comb, Kachera are clean white shorts, Kara is a steel or iron bracelet worn on the wrist, in battle they may be used as brass knuckles and larger ones worn on the turban are thrown, and the Kirpan is a long sharp sword worn to protect innocent and defenseless people in violent clashes and uphold justice and rights.[18]

ISLAM: Anas bin Malik (ra) says: "Rasulullah (saas) had a ring made of silver and its (inlaid) gem was also of silver."108

"The inscription engraved on the ring of Rasulullah (saas) was 'Muhammad Rasulullah,' of which in the first line was engraved 'Muhammad,' in the second line 'Rasul,' and in the third line 'Allah'."110


ISLAM: Archery, Swimming and horse riding are highly encouraged. Famous sword Zulfiqar. Weaponary /Sabres and means of preserving property freedom and self defence of oneself and community is obligatory, based on principle of justice in face of oppresion or persecution against a community regardless of composition of community on racial or religious lines.

SIKHISM: Bana - Bana is the Sikh attire given by Guru Gobind Singh, which is robe of electric blue,[19] bangles or bracelets of iron round their wrists (kara), and quoits of steel (chakram) in their lofty conical blue and/or orange turbans, together with daggers, knives and swords of varying sizes (kirpan) and other weapons. This attire has much to do with military status.

Similarities 3Edit

Sufi saints in the Guru Granth Sahib ( sikh holy book)Edit

Similaritites 4 Edit

Sufi saint: Hazrat Mian Mir construction of Golden TempleEdit

In December 1588, the Sufi saint of Lahore, Mian Mir,[58][60] who was a close friend of Guru Arjan Dev, initiated the construction of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) by laying the first foundation stone.[61]

ReferencesEdit [The grooming of the Prophet (saas)'s hair and beard]

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

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