Islam is the second most widely practiced religion in France by number of worshippers, with an estimated total of 5 to 10 percent of the national population. Muslims comprised an estimated two-thirds (68.5%) of all new immigrants to France in 2010.

The current Muslim population is mostly due to a wave of immigration after World War II, when the number of Muslims in France surged with the arrival of an increasing foreign labor force from the Maghreb. Immigrants came from nations which maintained strong ties with French language and culture (Francophonie) because of the legacy of past colonization. Immigrants, attracted by economic opportunities, supplied a pool of manpower for the labor-intensive economy which prevailed at this time. They have chosen to settle in France and to embrace citizenship, as they were granted family reunification. Muslims contributed noticeably to the economic expansion of France during that time of "The Glorious Thirty", primarily as blue-collar workers in manufacturing plants or construction.

Historically, presence of Muslims in France is attested briefly in the 8th century when the Moors conquered Spain and pushed northward. The Moors were defeated in 732 by Frankish and Burgundian forces at the Battle of Tours.

There is over 2,000 mosques in France.

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