Islam is the main religion of the citizens of Kuwait. Sunni Islam is dominant in Kuwait, with 60% of the total population. The Shias have a representation of about 40%, and is therefore a large minority. Christians represent 10%, but these are mainly expatriate workers.

Likewise, the population of Kuwait is ethnically mixed, due to large expatriate communities. There are two groups of natives in Kuwait. Arabs whose ancestors belonged to the larger settlements and living off the land, and who have the highest rank in the society. The other native group are the people whose ancestors lived in smaller communities, and who had their income from fishing. This last group has never received full citizenship, even if they are the true natives of Kuwait — more than the first group which are Arab immigrants from the early 18th century.

There are many minority groups, Arabs from other countries, Indians, Pakistanis, Iranians, and before 1991 400,000 Palestinians. Ethnic Kuwaitis represented 25% of the total population, but their relative number has risen after 1991. Kuwaiti governments is now concerned with keeping the number of foreigners below 50%, motivated by security concerns

The largest mosque in Kuwait is the Imam Hussein Mosque in Kuwait City. It is a Shia mosque.

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