Islam is by far the most dominant religion in Uzbekistan. Muslims constitute 90% of the population while 5% of the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity.

Despite it's predominance, the practice of Islam is far from monolithic. Many versions of the faith have been practiced in Uzbekistan. The conflict of Islamic tradition with various agendas of reform or secularization throughout the 20th century has left the outside world with a confused notion of Islamic practices in Central Asia. In Uzbekistan the end of Soviet power did not bring an upsurge of Islamic fundamentalism, as many had predicted, but rather a gradual reacquaintance with the precepts of the faith. However after 2000, there seems to be a rise of support in favour of the Islamists, which is whipped up by the repressive measures of the authoritarian regime.

Islam was brought to ancestors of modern Uzbeks during the 8th century when the Arabs entered Central Asia.

The Po-i-Kalyan Mosque in Bukhara is the country's largest mosque.

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