Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic scholarship that studies Yawm al-Qiyāmah (pronounced yome-ul-key-ah-mah; Arabic: يوم القيامة‎ "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Din (pronounced yome-ul-dean; Arabic: يوم الدين‎ "the Day of Judgment"). This is believed to be the final assessment of humanity by Allah, with annihilation of all life, resurrection, and judgment.

The time of the event is not specified, although there are major and minor signs which have been foretold to happen with Qiyamah at the end of time.[1][2] Many verses of Qur'anic Sura contain the motif of the impending Day of Resurrection.[3][4]

The 75th Sura of the Qur'an, "al-Qiyama", has as its main subject the resurrection. Its tribulation is also described in the hadith, and commentaries of Islamic expositors such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaymah.[4][5] The Day of Judgment is also known as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day and al-sā'ah, or the Hour.[6][7][8][9]

The hadith describe end time with more specificity than the Qur'an, describing the events of al-Qiyamah through twelve major signs. At the time of judgment, terrible corruption and chaos will rule. The Mahdi will be sent and with the help of Isa, will battle Masih ad-Dajjal. They will triumph, liberating Islam from cruelty, and this will be followed by a time of serenity with people living true to religious values.[10]

Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches resurrection of the dead, a final tribulation and eternal division of the righteous and wicked.[11] Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is often known as fitnah, malāhim, or ghaybah in Shī‘a Islam. Righteous are rewarded with pleasures of Jannah, while unrighteous are tortured in Jahannam.

Six articles of faithEdit

The Day of Judgment or Resurrection, al-Qiyāmah, is one of the six articles of faith in Islam.[12] The tribulation associated with it is described in the Qur'an and hadith, and commentaries of Islamic expositors like al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaymah.[4][5] The Day of Judgment is also known as the Day of Reckoning, the Hour, and the Last Day.[6][7][8][9] The Day of Judgment or Resurrection, al-Qiyāmah, relates to one of the six aqīdah in Sunni Islam, and seven aqidah in Shī‘a belief.[12]

Sources Edit

There are two main sources in Islamic scripture that discuss the Last Judgment, the Qur'an, which is viewed in Islam as infallible, and the hadith, or sayings of the prophet. Hadith are viewed with more flexibility due to the late compilation of the traditions in written form, two hundred years after the death of Muhammad.[13] The concept has also been discussed in commentaries of Islamic scholars such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, and Muhammad al-Bukhari.

Last Judgment in the Qur'anEdit

The Qur'an describes the Last Judgment, with a number of interpretations of its verses. There are specific aspects:

  1. The time is known only to Allah.[14]
  2. Prophet Muhammad cannot bring it forward.[15]
  3. Those who have been dead will believe that a short time has passed between birth and death.[16] Nothing will remain except Allah.[17]
  4. God will resurrect all, even if they have turned to stone or iron.[18]
  5. Those that have accepted false deities will suffer in the afterlife.[19]

Three periodsEdit

There are three periods before the Day of Judgment, also known as ashratu's-sa'ah or alamatu qiyami's-sa'ah, with some debate as to whether the periods could overlap.[12][20][21] The first period began at the passing of Muhammad, and the second began with the passing of his companions and ended a thousand years later. The Tartar invasion, 650 years after the death of Muhammad, occurred in the second period. The Mongols, led by Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, attacked Baghdad in 1258 CE and brought the Abbasid caliphate to an end. They massacred millions of Muslims, and the water of the river Tigris turned red with blood. The Qur'an also foretold a fire at Madinah in the Hijaz near Busra in Syria in the second period, which Islamic scholars believe occurred in 654 AH. We are currently in the second period, with the end of days beginning with the appearance of Mahdi.[21]

Major and minor signsEdit

There are a number of major and minor signs of the end of days in Islam. There is debate over whether they could occur concurrently or must be at different points in times, although Islamic scholars typically divide them into three major periods.[12][20]

Major signsEdit

Following the second period, the third will be marked by the twelve major signs known as amaratu's-sa'ah al- kubra (The major signs of the end). They are as follows:

  1. The false messiah, Masih ad-Dajjal, shall appear with huge powers as a one eyed man with the other eye blind and deformed like a grape. He will claim to be God and to hold keys to heaven and hell and lead many astray, although believers will not be deceived.[20][22]
  2. Appearance of the Mahdi[12][23]
  3. Medina will be deserted, with true believers going to follow Mahdi and sinners following Dajjal
  4. The return of Isa, from the third sky to kill Dajjal and wipe out all falsehood and religions other than Islam, he will rule the world until he dies.[24]
  5. Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj, two tribes of vicious beings which had been imprisoned by Dhul-Qarnayn will break out. They will ravage the earth, drink all the water of Lake Tiberias, and kill all believers in their way (or see). Isa, Imam Al-Mahdi, and the believers with them will go to the top of a mountain and pray for the destruction of Gog and Magog. Allah will eventually send disease and worms to wipe them out.[20][25][26]
  6. Mecca will be attacked and the Kaaba will be destroyed
  7. A pleasant breeze will blow from the south that shall cause all believers to die
  8. Quran will be forgotten and no one will recall its verses
  9. All Islamic knowledge will be lost to the extent where people will not say "La Illah Ila Allah" (There is no god, but Allah), but instead old people will babble without understanding "Allah, Allah"
  10. Dabbat al-ard, or the Beast that will come out of the ground to talk to people [27]
  11. People will fornicate in the streets 'like donkeys'
  12. A huge black smoke cloud will cover the earth
  13. The sun will rise from the west [28][29]
  14. The first trumpet blow will be sounded by Israfil, and all that is in heavens and earth will be stunned and die except what God wills, silence envelops everything for forty (an undetermined period of time)
  15. The second trumpet blow will be sounded, the dead will return to life and a fire will start that shall gather all to Mahshar Al Qiy'amah (The Gathering for Judgement)[21]

Major FiguresEdit


Main article: Mahdi

Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي‎) translates to 'guided one', with hadith being the primary source of his descriptions. His appearance will be the first sign of the third period.[21] Hadith write that he will be a descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and cousin Ali. The Mahdi will be looked upon to kill Al-Dajjal and end the prevalent disintegration of the Muslim community to prepare for the reign of Jesus who will rule for a time after. The Mahdi will similarly kill all enemies of the Prophet and fulfill the prophetic mission as a vision of justice and peace before following Jesus’ rule.[31] The physical features of Mahdi are described in the hadith—he will be of Arab complexion and average height with a large belly, large eyes and a sharp nose. He will have a mole on his cheek, the sign of the prophet on his shoulder, and be recognized by the caliphate while he sits at his own home. As written by Abu Dawud:

Our Mahdi will have a broad forehead and a pointed (prominent) nose. He will fill the earth with justice as it is filled with injustice and tyranny. He will rule for seven years.
—Abu Dawud, Sahih, 2.208 and Fusul al-muhimma, 275

Though the duration of his rule differs, hadith are consistent in describing that Allah will perfect him in a single night with inspiration and wisdom, and his name will be announced from the sky. He will bring back worship of true Islamic values, and bring the Ark of the Covenant to light. He will conquer Istanbul and Mount Daylam. And will Eye Jerusalem and the Dome as his Home. His banner will be that of the prophet Muhammad: black and unstitched, with a halo. Unopened since the death of Muhammad, the banner will unfurl when the Mahdi appears. He will be helped by angels and others that will prepare the way for him. He will understand the secrets of abjad.[10]

Sunni and Shi'ite perspectives on the MahdiEdit

Sunni and Shi'ite Islam have different beliefs on the identity of Mahdi. Historically, Sunni Islam has derived religious authority from the caliphate, who was in turn appointed by the companions of Muhammad at his death. The Sunnis view the Mahdi as the successor of Mohammad, the Mahdi is expected to arrive to rule the world and reestablish righteousness.[32] Various Sunnis also share a parallel belief that though there may be no actual Mahdi, the existence of mujaddid will instead lead the Islamic revolution of a renewal in faith and avoidance of deviation from God’s path. Such an intellectual and spiritual figure of Sunni tradition has been attributed to numerous Muslims at the end of each Muslim century from the origin of Islam through present day.[31] This classical interpretation is favored by Sunni scholars like Ghazali and Ibn Taymiyyah.

Twelver Shi'a Islam, in distinction, followed the bloodline of Muhammad, favoring his cousin and son by marriage, Ali. Ali was appointed the first Imam, and following him there were eleven more. Muhammad al-Mahdi, otherwise known as the twelfth imam, went into hiding in 873 AD at the age of four. His father was al-`Askari, and had been murdered, and so he was hidden from the authorities of the Abbasid Caliphate. He maintained contact with his followers until 940 AD, when he was hidden. Twelver Shia Islam believes that al-Mahdi is the current Imam, and will emerge at the end of the current age. Some scholars say that, although unnoticed by others present, the Mahdi of Twelver Shi'a Islam continues to make an annual pilgrimage while he resides outside of Mecca.[33] In distinction, Sunni Islam foresees him as a separate and new person.[34] The present Ayatollahs of Iran see themselves as joint caretakers of the office of the Imam until he returns.[35]

The Mahdi is not described in the Qurʾān, only in hadith, with scholars suggesting he arose when Arabian tribes were settling in Syria under Muawiya. “They anticipated 'the Mahdi who will lead the rising people of the Yemen back to their country’ in order to restore the glory of their lost Himyarite kingdom. It was believed that he would eventually conquer Constantinople.”[32]

Claimants of the MahdiEdit

Throughout history, there have been multiple claimants to the role of Mahdi that had come into existence through their pious deeds and by subsequently acquiring their own following. One of these men, Muhammad al-Hanifiyya was said to have judgment and character over rival caliphs; and mysteries of his death arose in the 8th century. It was believed he had in fact not died and would one day return as the Mahdi. The sect of Mahdavis arose as followers of another claimant, Muhammad Mahdi of Janpur in the 15th century. Furthermore, a potential Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad of Sudan, was believed to hold the title following his self-proclamation in 1881 and stand against the Turco-Egyptian government as well as the British.[31] Additionally, Mīrzā Ghulām Aḥmad of Punjab claimed to be the Mahdi during the same period as Muhammad Ahmad and considered a heretic by Orthodox Muslims, though he amassed a substantial following and is credited with founding the sect of Ahmadiyya.[31] It should not be forgotten that two linked Shi'i movements, that of the Babis and that of the Baha'is believed (and believe) that their prophets, Sayyid "Ali Muhammad, the Bab" (d. 1850) and Mirza Husayn "Ali Nuri, Bahá'u'lláh were fulfillers of prophecy. The Bab is thought to be the return of the Twelfth Imam and Bahá'u'lláh the Mahdi. Since the Baha'is now preach a fairly successful international religion with possibly 6 million followers, their concept of a fulfillment of Islamic prophecy is now currently well outside the Islamic world.

Isa Edit


Main article: Jesus in Islam

Isa is the Arabic name for Jesus of Nazareth, and his return is considered the third major sign of last days, while the second is the appearance of Masih ad-Dajjal. Although Muhammad is the preeminent Prophet in Islam, Jesus is the only Prophet who is said not to have died but rather raised up by Allah.[36] Thus, in accordance with post-Quranic legend, he will conceivably return to Earth as a just judge before the Day of Judgment.[37] As written in hadith:

Abu Hurayrah narrates that the Messenger of Allah said, "By Him in whose hands my soul rests! It is definitely close in that time that Isa, Son of Maryam descends amongst you as a just ruler. He will break the cross, kill the swine and abolish jaziya. And money will abound in such access that no one will accept it.
—Ahmad bin Hambal, al-Musnad, vol 2, p. 240[21]

Hadith reference both the Mahdi and Isa simultaneously and the return of the Mahdi will coincide with the return of Isa. He will descend from the heavens in al-Quds at dawn. The two will meet, and Mahdi will lead the people in fajr prayer. After the prayer, they will open a gate to the west and encounter Masih ad-Dajjal. After the defeat of ad-Dajjal, Isa will lead a peaceful forty-year reign until his death. He will be buried in a tomb beside Muhammad in Medina.[38] Though the two most certainly differ regarding their role and persona in Islamic eschatology, the figures of the Mahdi and Isa are ultimately inseparable for according to the Prophet. Though Isa is said to descend upon the world once again, the Mahdi will already be present.

What will be your reaction when the son of Mary (Jesus) descends and your Imam is from among yourselves? (Sahih Muslim, bab nuzul 'isa, Vol. 2; Sahih Bukhari, kitab bad' al-khalq wa nuzul 'isa, Vol. 4)


Al-Dajjal or the Antichrist or False Messiah does not appear in the Quran but is a prominent figure in the Hadiths and Islamic eschatology as a whole. He appears gruesome and is blind in his right eye. His one eye is thought to be a symbol that correlates with how single minded he is in achieving his goal of converting Muslims to his side. Al-Dajjal has the intention of gaining followers through his miracle working abilities and apparent wealth and generosity. These abilities are a test for true believers of Islam, who have been warned about his power and must resist his material temptations. He is thought to appear prior to the Day of Judgement, where he will engage in an epic battle with and be killed by either Jesus (according to Sunni tradition) or the Mahdi (according to the Shia tradition). Al-Dajjal functions symbolically as a key cog in overall Islamic eschatological picture, which emphasizes the world coming to an end, of good finally triumphing over evil, and of the remarkable events that will prefigure the replacement of the mortal world with a more authentic form of existence in the afterlife. Various Muslim political movements use the concept of Al-Dajjal to comment on contemporary events, and often identify him with opposing regimes or other worldly forces that they consider as harmful to Islam.[39]

Ya'juj and Ma'juj Edit

Main article: Gog and Magog

The fourth major sign of end time will be that the wall which imprisons the nations of Ya'juj and Ma'juj will break, and they will surge forth. Some Islamic scholars, such as Sheikh Imran Nazar Hosein,[40] believe the wall began to crack during the life of Muhammad. This is supported in the hadith when the prophet mentions that "a hole has been made in the wall containing the Ya'juj and Ma'juj", indicating the size of the hole with his thumb and index finger. Their release will occur forty years prior to the Last Judgment:[21]

But when Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj are let loose and they rush headlong down every hill and mountain
—Qur'an 21:96 [41]

They will ravage the earth. Ultimately, Allah will send worms and insects to destroy them.[21]

Major EventsEdit

Desertion of Medina, destruction of Mekka, and the Beast of the Earth Edit

The fifth sign is that Medinah will be deserted, and all that remains in the city will be date palms. The just will have gone to join Mahdi, and the evil to Dajjal. Medinah will have been depopulated for forty years by the time of al-Qiyama. The sixth sign is that a thin ruler with short legs from Ethiopia will attack Mecca and destroy the Kabah.

The seventh sign is written in the Ahadith, and is the appearance of the da'ba-tul-ard, or the Beast of the Earth, who will populate the entire world and judge the wicked:

And when the Word is fulfilled against [the unjust], We shall produce from the earth a Beast to [face] them: he will speak to them, for that mankind did not believe with assurance in our Signs.
—Qur'an 27:82

The entire world will be engulfed by dukhan, or smoke, for forty days and there will be three huge earthquakes.[23][42] The Qur'an will be taken to the heavens and even the huffaz will not recall its verses. Finally, a pleasant breeze will blow that shall cause all believers to die, but infidels and sinners will remain alive. A fire will start from Hadramawt in Yemen that shall gather all the people of the world in the land of Mahshar, and al-Qiyamah will commence.[21]

Separation of righteous and the damned at al-QiyamahEdit

The eighth sign is a breeze bearing a pleasant scent will emanate from Yemen, causing the awliya, sulaha and the pious to die peacefully once they inhale it. After the believers die, there will be a period of 120 years during which the world will hold only kafirs, sinners, oppressors, liars and adulterers, and there would be a reversion to idolatry.

The ninth sign is the rising of the sun from the West after a long night, which after midday will set again. According to Hadith:

Abu Hurayrah states that the Messenger of Allah (swt) as said, “The Hour will not be established until the sun rises from the West and when the people see it they will have faith. But that will be (the time) when believing of the soul, that will have not believed before that time, will not benefit it.
—Ibn Maja, as-Sunan, vol. 2 p 1352-53[21]

The final signs will be nafkhatu'l-ula, when the trumpet will be sounded for the first time, and which will result in the death of the remaining sinners. Then there will be a period of forty years. Then a second trumpet will sound to signal the resurrection. As written in the Qur'an:

The Trumpet will (just) be sounded, when all that are in the heavens and on earth will swoon, except such as it will please Allah (to exempt). Then will a second one be sounded, when, behold, they will be standing and looking on!
—Sura 39 (Az-Zumar), ayah 68[43]
Finally, there will be no more injustice:
Surely God does not do injustice to the weight of an ant, and if it is a good deed He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.
—Sura 4 An-Nisa, ayah 40[44]

Resurrection of the deadEdit

Main article: Barzakh

In the Qur'an, barzakh (Arabic: برزخ‎) is the intermediate state in which nafs of the deceased are held between realities to rest with loved ones until Qiyamah.[45][46][46][47][48]

The eleventh sign is the second sounding of the trumpet, at which time the dead will be resurrected as ba'as ba'da'l-mawt. All will be naked and running to the Place of Gathering, while the enemies of Allah will be travelling on their faces with their legs upright.

At divine judgment, each person's Book of Deeds will be read, in which 'every small and great thing is recorded',[49] will be read, with actions before adolescence not written. Records shall be given in the right hand if they are good, and the left if they are evil. Even the smallest acts will not be ignored:
Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it!
And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it.
—Qur'an, sura 99 Az-Zalzala, ayat 7-8[50]
This will be followed by perfect, divine and merciful justice. The age of the hereafter, or rest of eternity, is the final stage after the Day of Judgment, when all will receive their judgment from God.
Those who believe in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad, and those who are Jews, and Christians, and Sabians - whoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right - surely their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
—Qur'an, sura 2 Al-Baqara, ayah 62[51]

The dead will stand in a grand assembly, awaiting a scroll detailing their righteous deeds, sinful acts and ultimate judgment.[52][53] Muhammad will be the first to be resurrected.[54]

If one did good deeds, one would go to Jannah, and if unrighteous would go to Jahannam. Punishments will include adhab, or severe pain, and khizy or shame.[55][55] There will also be a punishment of the grave (for those who disbelieved) between death and the resurrection.[56]

Comparison to ChristianityEdit

While appearing similar to certain parts of the Bible (Ezekiel,[57] James,[58] 1 Peter,[59] Revelation[60]), this is dissimilar to some Protestant branches of Christianity, where salvation comes by faith in Jesus alone. Catholics, however, cite James 2:24[61] as evidence that judgment is not based on faith alone. Islam emphasizes that grace does not conflict with perfect justice.

Islamic eschatology in science fictionEdit

Ibn al-Nafis dealt with Islamic eschatology in some depth in his Theologus Autodidactus, where he rationalized the Islamic view of eschatology using reason, science and philosophy to explain the events that would occur according to Islamic eschatology. He presented his rational and scientific arguments in the form of Arabic fiction, hence his Theologus Autodidactus may be considered the earliest science fiction work.[62]

The epic science fiction and epic space opera genres largely originated from the 1965 novel Dune, which was greatly inspired by Arabic literature and Islamic literature, particularly Islamic eschatology and prophecies related to the Mahdi.[63][64][65] Dune has been widely influential, inspiring other novels, music, films (including Star Wars), television, games, comic books and t-shirts.[66][67]

See alsoEdit


  1. "Major Signs before the Day of Judgment". Shaykh Ahmad Ali.
  2. "Signs of Qiyaamah".
  3. Hasson, Isaac. Last Judgment,. Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Gardet, L.. Qiyama. Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Qur'an 74:38
  6. 6.0 6.1 Qur'an 71:18
  7. 7.0 7.1 Qur'an 31:34
  8. 8.0 8.1 Qur'an 74:47
  9. 9.0 9.1 Qur'an 2:8
  10. 10.0 10.1 Yahya, Harun (12 May 2010). Portents And Features Of The Mahdi’s Coming. Global Publishing. Kindle Edition.. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Richardson, Joel (7 April 2006). Antichrist: Islam's Awaited Messiah. Pleasant Word-A Division of WinePress Publishing, 284. 
  13. Ben David, Mikhah (20 Feb 2011). What does it mean that "the Mahdi will rule according to the Judgment of David and Solomon"?. New Dawn Publications. 
  14. Qur'an 33:63
  15. Qur'an 6:57
  16. Qur'an 10:45
  17. Qur'an 28:88
  18. Qur'an 17:49
  19. Quran 11:17,
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Hooper, Rev. Richard (20 April 2011). End of Days: Predictions of the End From Ancient Sources, 156. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 Yahya, Harun (1 January 2008). Clarity Amidst Confusion: Imam Mahdi and the End of Time. Global Publishing. Kindle Edition., 64. 
  22. Christine Huda Dodge. The Everything Understanding Islam Book: A complete guide to Muslim beliefs, practices, and culture, 182. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Jon R. Stone. Expecting Armageddon: Essential Readings in Failed Prophecy. 
  24. John L. Esposito. What Everyone Needs To Know About Islam, 28. 
  25. Qur'an 21:96
  26. Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Islam: A Concise Introduction, 46. 
  27. Qur'an 27:82
  28. "طلوع الشمس من مغربها" (in Arabic).
  29. Alwi Shihab. Examining Islam in the West, 16. 
  30. Begley, Wayne E. The Garden of the Taj Mahal: A Case Study of Mughal Architectural Planning and Symbolism, in: Wescoat, James L.; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim (1996). Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C., ISBN 0884022358. pp. 229-231.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 Waldman, Marilyn Robinson. "Eschatology: Islamic Eschatology". Encyclopedia of Religion. Detroit: Macmillan Reference. Retrieved on 1.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Arjomand, Said Amir (Dec. 2007). "Islam in Iran vi., the Concept of Mahdi in Sunni Islam". Encyclopaedia Iranica XIV (Fasc. 2): 134–136. 
  33. Peterson, Daniel C.. "Eschatology". Oxford Islamic Studies. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islamic Studies. Retrieved on 2.
  34. Rogers, Ed (26 Oct 2011). Islam and the Last days. Connection Publishing. 
  35. (2006) No god but God : the origins, evolution, and future of Islam. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6213-6. 
  36. Quran. "al-Imran 3:55".
  37. Poston, Larry (January 2010). "The Second Coming of ‘Isa: an Exploration of Islamic Premillennialism". The Muslim World 100: 108–109. 
  38. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. "Eschatology". Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 5.
  39. Leaman, Oliver. "Dajjāl, Al-". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 5.
  41. Khan, Muhammad Muhsin (trans.) (23 Feb,). The Holy Qur'an. B007D64VX6. 
  42. Qur'an 44:10
  43. Qur'an 39:68
  44. Qur'an 4:40 (Translated by Shakir)
  45. "Saudi Arabia Ministry of religious affairs".
  46. 46.0 46.1 "Tafseer Ibn Katheer (23-100)".
  47. "Tafseer Ibn Katheer (25:53)".
  48. "Tafseer Ibn Katheer (25:53)(55:19)".
  49. Qur'an 54:52–53
  50. Qur'an 99:7–8
  51. Qur'an 2:62
  52. [Qur'an 74:38]
  53. Muhammad, S. Umar (1999). Muslims' Eschatological Discourses on Colonialism in Northern Nigeria.. Oxford University Press, 59–84. 
  54. Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512558-4, p.264
  55. 55.0 55.1 "Reward and Punishment", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an(2005)
  56. Leor Halevi,
  57. Template:Bibleverse
  58. Template:Bibleverse
  59. Template:Bibleverse
  60. Template:Bibleverse
  61. Template:Bibleverse
  62. Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn Al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibn al-Nafis As a Philosopher, Encyclopedia of Islamic World [1])
  63. "Arabic and Islamic themes in Frank Herbert's Dune". The Baheyeldin Dynasty. Retrieved on 2009-01-02.
  64. Herbert, Frank (1965). "Afterword: by Brian Herbert (2005)", Dune, 40th Anniversary Edition (Dune Chronicles: Book 1). Ace Books, NY, 523–525. ISBN 0-441-01359-7. 
  65. "To name one recent example, the political imbroglio involving T. E. Lawrence had profound messianic overtones. If Lawrence had been killed at a crucial point in the struggle, Herbert notes, he might well have become a new "avatar" for the Arabs. The Lawrence analogy suggested to Herbert the possibility for manipulation of the messianic impulses within a culture by outsiders with ulterior purposes. He also realized that ecology could become the focus of just such a messianic episode, here and now, in our own culture. 'It might become the new banner for a deadly crusade--an excuse for a witch hunt or worse.'
    Herbert pulled all these strands together in an early version of Dune. It was a story about a hero very like Lawrence of Arabia, an outsider who went native and used religious fervor to fuel his own ambitions--in this case, to transform the ecology of the planet." pg 41, O'Reilly 1981 ibid.
  66. Star Wars Origins: Dune -
  67. Roberts, Adam. Science Fiction. New York: Routledge, 2000. pp. 85-90 ISBN 0-415-19204-8

External linksEdit

  • Fath al-bârî fî sharh sahîh al-bukhârî
  • Esposito, John. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, 2003, 0-19-512558-4
  • Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll, Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, MacMillan Reference Books, 2003, 978-0028656038

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