Muslims regard as prophets of Islam () those non-divine humans chosen by Allah as prophets (according to their beliefs). Each prophet brought the same basic ideas of Islam, including belief in one God and avoidance of idolatry and sin. Each came to preach Islam and told of the coming of the final law-bearing prophet and messenger of God: Muhammad. Each prophet directed a message to a different group and each prophet taught minor variations in Sharia (or the practice of religion) to a different target-audience. These variations constitute applications of Islam: mainstream Muslims do not consider them discrete versions of Islam.

Islamic tradition holds that God sent messengers to every nation. In Islam, only Muhammad was sent to convey God's message to the whole world, whereas other messengers (rasuls) were sent to convey their messages to a specific group of people or nation.

Unlike Judaism and Christianity, Islam distinguishes between a direct messenger of God (rasul) and a prophet (nabi). Both function as divinely inspired recipients of God's revelation. However, in addition, rasuls receive a divine message or revelation for a community in book form. While every rasul is a nabi, not every nabi is a rasul.

Muslims regard Adam as the first prophet and Muhammad as the last prophet; hence Muhammad's title Seal of the Prophets. Islam regards Jesus as a rasul (and sometimes as a nabi) because he received wahi (revelation) from God, through which God revealed the Injil (Gospel) to him. Muslims believe that God has sent over 124,000 messengers all over the world as mentioned in the Sahih Hadith. Five (sometimes known as Ulul Azmi or the Imams — i.e. leaders — of the Rasuls) are accorded the highest reverence for their perseverance and unusually strong commitment to God in the face of great suffering. These five are Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus), and Muhammad.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

In both Arabic and Hebrew, the term nabī (plural forms: nabiyyūn and anbiyāʾ) means "prophet". These terms occur 75 times in the Qur'an. The term nubuwwa (meaning "prophethood") occurs five times in the Qur'an. The terms rasūl (plural: rusul) and mursal (plural: mursalūn) denote “messenger” or "apostle" and occur more than 300 times. The term for a prophetic “message”, risāla (plural: risālāt) appears in the Qur'an in ten instances.

The Syriac form of rasūl Allāh (literally: "messenger of God"), s̲h̲eliḥeh d-allāhā, occurs frequently in the apocryphal Acts of St. Thomas. The corresponding verb for s̲h̲eliḥehs̲h̲alaḥ, occurs in connection with the prophets in the Old Testament (Exodus, iii, 13-14, iv, 13; Isaiah, vi, 8; Jeremiah, i, 7).

Prophets and messengers in the Bible[edit | edit source]

The words "prophet" (Arabic: nabi, نبی) and "messenger" (Arabic: rasul, رسول) appear several times in the Old and New Testaments. The following table shows these words in different religious languages:

Prophet and Messenger in Bible
Arabic English Greek pronunciation Hebrew pronunciation
نبی Prophet προφήτης prophētēs נביא nâbîy'
رسول Messenger, Apostle ἄγγελος aggelos מלאך malak

In the Old Testament the word "prophet" (Hebrew: nabi) occurs more commonly, and the word "messenger" (Hebrew: malak) refers to Angels, But the last book of the Old Testament, the Book of Malachi, speaks of a messenger that most commentators interpret as a reference to John the Baptist. In the New Testament, however, the word "messenger" becomes more frequent, sometimes in association with the concept of a prophet. "Messenger" can refer to Jesus, to his Apostles and to John the Baptist

It seems that in the New Testament messengers have a higher rank than prophets; Jesus Christ said about John the Baptist:

But what went ye out for to see? A prophet? yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet. For this is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.

Prophets and messengers in the Qur'an[edit | edit source]

The table below charts the Qur'anic verses which explicitly reference a prophet (nabi), a messenger (rasul) or a leader (imam). It also includes explicit references to prophets' book(s) / people / divine law (sharia).

Men of Allah in Qur'an
Name Nabi (Prophet) Rasul (Messenger) Imam (Leader) Book People Sharia (Divine Law)
Adam (Adam (Bible))Yes check.svg
Idris (Enoch (ancestor of Noah)) Yes check.svg
Nuh (Noah) Yes check.svg
Yes check.svg
People of Noah Yes check.svg
Hud (prophet) (Eber) Yes check.svg
Saleh (Shaloh) Yes check.svg
Ibrahim (Abraham) Yes check.svg
Yes check.svg
Yes check.svg
Books of Abraham People of Abraham Yes check.svg
People of Lut
Isma’il (Ishmael) Yes check.svg
Yes check.svg
Yes check.svg
Yaqub (Jacob) Yes check.svg
Musa (Moses) Yes check.svg
Yes check.svg
Pharaoh Yes check.svg
Daud (David) Yes check.svg
Prophet (Psalms)
Sulayman (Solomon) Yes check.svg
People of Elijah
Al-Yasa (Elisha) Yes check.svg
People of Jonah
Dhul-Kifl (Ezekiel)
Zakariya (Zechariah) Yes check.svg
Isa (Jesus) Yes check.svg
Yes check.svg
Injil (Gospel) Children of Israel Yes check.svg
Yes check.svg
All people Yes check.svg

Prophets and scriptures[edit | edit source]

The prophets and Muhammad[edit | edit source]

The scope of the prophetic mission[edit | edit source]

The purpose of messengers[edit | edit source]

The following list summarises the purpose of sending Messengers of Allah:

i. Allah sent messengers to every nation to guide them to Path of Allah:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ الطَّاغُوتَ فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ هَدَى اللّهُ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ الضَّلالَةُ فَسِيرُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ فَانظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ

Transliteration: Walaqad baAAathna fee kulli ommatin rasoolan ani oAAbudoo Allaha waijtaniboo alttaghoota faminhum man hada Allahu waminhum man haqqat AAalayhi alddalalatu faseeroo fee al-ardi faonthuroo kayfa kana AAaqibatu almukaththibeena (Qur'an 16:36)

Pickthal Translation: And verily We have raised in every nation a messenger, (proclaiming): Serve Allah and shun false gods. Then some of them (there were) whom Allah guided, and some of them (there were) upon whom error had just hold. Do but travel in the land and see the nature of the consequence for the deniers! (Qur'an 16:36)

ii. Messengers warn nations to follow Allah’s commands and gave them glad tidings:

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا وَإِن مِّنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌ

Transliteration: Inna arsalnaka bialhaqqi basheeran wanatheeran wa-in min ommatin illa khala feeha natheerun (Qur'an 35:24)

Pickthal Translation: Lo! We have sent thee with the Truth, a bearer of glad tidings and a warner; and there is not a nation but a warner hath passed among them. (Qur'an 35:24)

iii. Messengers gave us guidance from Allah, taught us knowledge and provided a path to purify us:

كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولاً مِّنكُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُواْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Transliteration: Kama arsalna feekum rasoolan minkum yatloo AAalaykum ayatina wayuzakkeekum wayuAAallimukumu alkitaba waalhikmata wayuAAallimukum ma lam takoonoo taAAlamoona (Qur'an 2:151)

Pickthal Translation: Even as We have sent unto you a messenger from among you, who reciteth unto you Our revelations and causeth you to grow, and teacheth you the Scripture and wisdom, and teacheth you that which ye knew not. (Qur'an 2:151)

iv. Allah explained that obedience to Him and His Messenger will earn paradise:

وَمَن يُطِعِ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

Transliteration: Tilka hudoodu Allahi waman yutiAAi Allaha warasoolahu yudkhilhu jannatin tajree min tahtiha al-anharu khalideena feeha wathalika alfawzu alAAatheemu (Qur'an 4:13)

Pickthal Translation: These are the limits (imposed by) Allah. Whoso obeyeth Allah and His messenger, He will make him enter Gardens underneath which rivers flow, where such will dwell for ever. That will be the great success. (Qur'an 4:13)

v. And whosoever disobeys will earn Hell fire:

وَمَن يَعْصِ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارًا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ

Transliteration: Waman yaAAsi Allaha warasoolahu wayataAAadda hudoodahu yudkhilhu naran khalidan feeha walahu AAathabun muheenun (Qur'an 4:14)

Pickthal Translation: And whoso disobeyeth Allah and His messenger and transgresseth His limits, He will make him enter Fire, where he will dwell for ever; his will be a shameful doom. (Qur'an 4:14)

vi. Allah said that He will judge us only after we have received the Message from His Messengers, and everyone will be judged based on his own actions:

فَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الَّذِينَ أُرْسِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الْمُرْسَلِينَ - فَلَنَقُصَّنَّ عَلَيْهِم بِعِلْمٍ وَمَا كُنَّا غَآئِبِينَ

Transliteration: Falanas-alanna allatheena orsila ilayhim walanas-alanna almursaleena. Falanaqussanna AAalayhim biAAilmin wama kunna gha-ibeena (Qur'an 7:6-7)

Pickthal Translation: Then verily We shall question those unto whom (Our message) hath been sent, and verily We shall question the messengers. Then verily We shall narrate unto them (the event) with knowledge, for We were not absent (when it came to pass). (Qur'an 7:6-7)

مَّنِ اهْتَدَى فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدي لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا وَلاَ تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّى نَبْعَثَ رَسُولاً

Transliteration: Mani ihtada fa-innama yahtadee linafsihi waman dalla fa-innama yadillu AAalayha wala taziru waziratun wizra okhra wama kunna muAAaththibeena hatta nabAAatha rasoolan (Qur'an 17:15)

Pickthal Translation: Whosoever goeth right, it is only for (the good of) his own soul that he goeth right, and whosoever erreth, erreth only to its hurt. No laden soul can bear another's load, We never punish until we have sent a messenger. (Qur'an 17:15)

تَكَادُ تَمَيَّزُ مِنَ الْغَيْظِ كُلَّمَا أُلْقِيَ فِيهَا فَوْجٌ سَأَلَهُمْ خَزَنَتُهَا أَلَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ نَذِيرٌ- قَالُوا بَلَى قَدْ جَاءنَا نَذِيرٌ فَكَذَّبْنَا وَقُلْنَا مَا نَزَّلَ اللَّهُ مِن شَيْءٍ إِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَالٍ كَبِيرٍ

Transliteration: Takadu tamayyazu mina alghaythi kullama olqiya feeha fawjun saalahum khazanatuha alam ya/tikum natheerun. Qaloo bala qad jaana natheerun fakaththabna waqulna ma nazzala Allahu min shay-in in antum illa fee dalalin kabeerin (Qur'an 67:8-9)

Pickthal Translation: As it would burst with rage. Whenever a (fresh) host is flung therein the wardens thereof ask them: Came there unto you no warner? They say: Yea, verily, a warner came unto us; but we denied and said: Allah hath naught revealed; ye are in naught but a great error. (Qur'an 67:8-9)

vii. Thus, those who received His message will not have excuse of ignorance:

رُّسُلاً مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلاَّ يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Transliteration: Rusulan mubashshireena wamunthireena li-alla yakoona lilnnasi AAala Allahi hujjatun baAAda alrrusuli wakana Allahu AAazeezan hakeeman (Qur'an 4:165)

Pickthal Translation: Messengers of good cheer and of warning, in order that mankind might have no argument against Allah after the messengers. Allah is ever Mighty, Wise. (Qur'an 4:165)

Distinguishing Muhammad from other messengers[edit | edit source]

Muslims believe that Muhammad differs from other messengers in three respects:

1. Allah sent all previous messengers to a specific nation in specific region of Earth. Their teachings also applied in a limited way for a specific time and period. However, Muhammad was sent to entire mankind and his guidance is for all mankind until the end of times.

2. The teachings of all previous Islamic messengers except Muhammad have all but disappeared, and whatever remained of them has become so much altered and mixed with falsely made-up stories that it is very difficult to recognize the original teachings. Whilst the teaching of Muhammad and the Quran is preserved in its originality, and Allah has promised to protect it until end of times.

3. The teachings of previous Messengers confined themselves to specific nations and times, thus their laws relating to ethics and moral code, justice, trade, financial deals, and civil law remained incomplete. Allah ( swt) through his final Messenger Mohamad completed the Religion and perfected it. It includes all the teachings from previous Messengers, and abrogated what was specific to those people and time.

Most Muslims thus believe that since the days of the prophet the teaching of Muhammad remains as the only trustworthy source to reach the guidance of Allah, and that the Qur'an contains the true teachings of Moses and Jesus.

Points of belief about Muhammad[edit | edit source]

The belief in Muhammad includes four points:

  1. That he is the Messenger of Allah who brought us the Book of Guidance, the Qur'an
  2. That he brought us the deen (way of life, or path) — complete and perfected, which remains applicable to all mankind until the end of times
  3. That he receives his guidance from Allah and that his knowledge and guidance is perfect from any defects
  4. That he is the Last and Final Messenger of Allah who has perfected the deen (way of life, or path, or religion) of Allah, and that no further Messenger will come after him, as the world needs none after the deen is completed and perfected. And the teachings of Muhammad are for the remainder of mankind.

The reception of the prophets[edit | edit source]

Stories of prophets[edit | edit source]

Allah sent each prophet to a specific nation except Muhammed — whom Allah sent to the whole world.

Table of prophets in the Qur'an[edit | edit source]

The following table lists the prophets mentioned in the Qur'an. Biblical versions of names also appear where applicable:

Name (Arabic & Arabic Translit.) Name (Biblical) Main Article(s) No. of verses with mention
Adam (Bible) 5

"Adam is the first prophet of Islam and the first human being. He was created by God but brought to life forty days after being kept as a dry body."

Enoch (ancestor of Noah) 3

Idris lived during a period of Drought inflicted by God to punish the people of the world who had forgotten God. Idris prayed for salvation and for an end to the suffering, and so the world received rain.

Noah 7

Although best known for the Deluge (mythology), Nuh became a primary preacher of monotheism at his time. Muslims believe his faith in God led to his selection for building the Ark.

Hud (prophet)
Eber 9

Muslims believe that only Hud (prophet), for whom the Hud (sura) of the Qur'an takes its name, and a few other people survived a great storm inflicted by God, similar to the Deluge (mythology) five generations earlier, to punish the people of the `Ad who had forgotten about God. Hud, by comparison and records, receives no mention in the Old Testament of the Bible.

Shaloh 7

According to the Qur'an God ordered Saleh to leave behind his people, the tribe of Thamud, after they disbelieved and disobeyed God's order to care for a special camel and instead killed it. In Saleh's and his followers' (believers) absence, God punished the people with an utter cry from the skies that killed his people instantly. Note that Saleh is not Shelah mentioned in the Old Testament.

Abraham 5

Muslims regard Abraham as one of the significant prophets, because they credit him with rebuilding the Kaaba in Mecca. His family, including his son Ishmael, also receives credit with helping create the civilization around Mecca that would later give birth to the final prophet of Islam, Muhammad. Ibrahim also significantly almost sacrificing his son Ismail (Ishmael) to God in an event now commemorated annually by Eid ul-Adha. He is also the first prophet to name the believers as "Muslims" meaning "those with full submission to God".

Lot 2

Lot is most notable in Islam for attempting to preach against Homosexuality in Sodom and Gomorra in addition to preaching for his people to believe in the Oneness of God, only to be mocked and ignored by the people who lived there. Islam also denies the acts attributed to Lut that are mentioned in the Old Testament, like drinking and being drunk, and having intercourse with and impregnating his two daughters.

Ishmael 9

Muslims regard Ismaïl, first-born son of Ibrahim, as a notable prophet in Islam for his near-sacrifice in adulthood. As a child he and his mother Hagar's search for water in the region around Mecca led God to reveal the Zamzam well, which still flows to .

Isaac 9

According to Islamic tradition, Isaac, second-born son of Ibrahim, became a prophet in Canaan. He, along with his brother Ismaïl, carried on the legacy of Ibrahim as prophets of Islam.

Jacob 2

Yakub, according to the Qur'an was "of the company of the Elect and the Good" and he continued the legacy of both his father, Isaac, and his grandfather, Abraham. Like his ancestors, he was committed to worshipping God exclusively.

Joseph 3

Yusuf, son of (Yakub) and great-grandson of Ibrahim, became a prominent advisor to the king of Egypt after he interpreted the phaoroh's dream which predicted the economic state of Egypt. He spent a large part of his life away from his eleven brothers, who showed jealousy of Yusuf because their father favored him. They took him one day, telling their father that they where going to play and have fun, but they planned to kill him. Instead, they threw him down a well and told their father Yaqub that he was eaten by a wolf. According to Islam Yusuf was gifted with half of the beauty granted to mankind.

Job 8

According to Islamic tradition, Ayyub was rewarded by a Fountain of youth, which removed all illnesses except death, for his service to God in his hometown outside Al Majdal. Ayyub is believed to have suffered an illness for 18 years as test of patience by God.

Jethro 2

Jethro was a direct descendant of Abraham. According to Islam, he was appointed by God to guide the people of Midyan and Aykah, who lived near Mount Sinai. When the people of the region failed to listen to his warnings, God destroyed the disbeliever's villages. Although the Qur'an and the reported speeches from Muhammad mention that Musa married one of Shu'aib's daughters, the Old Testament tells the same story of a man named Jethro. Some scholars believe that Jethro in the Old Testament is not the same person as Shu'aib in the Qur'an.

Moses 5

Moses, whom the Qur'an refers to more than any other prophet, had the distinction of revealing the Tawrat (Torah) to the Israelites. The Qur'an says Musa realized his connection with God after receiving commands from him during a stop at Mount Sinai. He later went on to free the enslaved Hebrews after the Egyptian pharaoh denied God's power. Musa subsequently led the freed Hebrews for forty years through the desert after they refused to obey God's command and enter the Holy Lands, saying to Moses (as mentioned in Qur'an , "O Moses! We will never enter (the land) while they are in it. So go thou and thy Lord and fight! We will sit here." During this long journey, on another trip to Mount Sinai Musa received the Tawrat and the Ten Commandments. At the end of his life, according to Islamic tradition, Musa chose to die to be closer to God instead of taking an offer that would have extended his life.

Aaron 8

Harun (Aaron) served as an assistant to his older brother Musa (Moses). In Islam, he, like Musa, received the task of saving the Israelites from the Egyptian pharaoh. He would often speak for Musa when Musa’s speech impediment prevented him from doing so himself.

ذو الكفل
most likely Ezekiel 5

The status of Dhul-Kifl as a prophet remains debatable within Islam, although both sides can agree that he was indeed a righteous man who strived in the way of God. Some studies also note that Dhul-Kifl can be also Obadiah, who is mentioned in the Old Testament to be the one that took care of 100 prophets. He is also believed to have possibly been Gautama Buddha.

David 7

In Islam, God revealed the Zabur (Psalms) to Dawud (David). Dawud also has significance as the one who defeated Goliath. It is worth to note that the story of King David with Uriah according to the Islamic tradition is different, thus the acts attributed to King David in the Old Testament like sending Uriah to be killed for the purpose of marrying his wife is denied in Islam.

Solomon 6

Süleyman (Solomon) learned a significant amount from his father Daud before God made him a prophet. According to Islamic tradition, Süleyman received power to manipulate nature, including the Djinn. Known for his honesty and fairness, he also led a kingdom that extended into southern Arabia.

Elijah 3

Ilyas (Elijah), descendant of Harun (Aaron), took over control of the southern part of the Arabia after the kingdom of Sulaiman (Solomon) collapsed. Islamic tradition says he attempted to convince the people of the Peninsula of the existence of only one God, but when the people refused to listen they were smitten with a drought and famine.

Elisha 3

Al-Yasa (Elisha) took over the task of leading the Israelites after Ilyas' (Elijah) death. He attempted to show the king and queen of Israel the powers of God, but was dismissed as a magician. Subsequently, the Assyrians were able to make people burn and inflict significant damage on them.

Jonah 5

Islamic tradition shows that God commanded Yunus (Jonah) to help the people of Nineveh towards righteousness. However, after Nineveh's people refused to listen to God, Yunus became disgruntled and became angry for God. After an incident where Yunus was spared death, he decided to re-commit himself to striving for God, attempting to lead the people of Nineveh to righteousness. But after returning to evil, illicit ways, the Scythians conquered them.

Zechariah 6

A descendant of Süleyman, Zakariya (Zachariah became a patron of Maryam (Mary) the mother of 'Isa. According to the Qur'an, he prayed to God asking for a son, since his sterile wife Al-Yashbi could not provide one. God granted his wishes, temporarily lifting his wife's sterility and allowing her to give birth to Yahya (John).

John the Baptist 2

Yahya (John) was cousin to Isa and Islam says that, throughout his lifetime, Yahya captivated audiences with his powerful sermons that preached Abrahamic monotheism. The Qur'an does not mention baptism.

Jesus 3

God sent one of the highest ranked prophets in Islam, Eisa al-Maseeh, (Jesus the Messiah) to guide the Children of Israel. The Qur'an makes it very clear that in Islam, Jesus is not the begotten (physical) son of God, but rather a nabi and rasul (messenger) of God.

'Isa performed many miracles with the permission of God, for example: raising the dead, creating a bird from clay, talking as an infant. Islamic traditions states that he abstained from drinking alcohol. It also states that he received a revelation, the Injil (Gospel), though according to Islam, it has suffered distortion. Muslims believe that no crucifixion of 'Isa took place, meaning he did not die on the cross. They believe that God raised Isa up to himself and thet Isa will return to Earth to fight the Dajjal and break the cross. The Qur'an and Saheeh Hadeeth tell a consistent story. From the Qur'an: Ch:4,verses:157-159 as translated: "157. And because of their saying (in boast), "We killed Messiah 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), the Messenger of Allah," - but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of 'Iesa (Jesus) was put over another man (and they killed that man), and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely; they killed him not [i.e. 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary) ]; 158. But Allah raised him ['Iesa (Jesus)] up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he is in the heavens). And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise; 159. And there is none of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), but must believe in him ['Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), as only a Messenger of Allah and a human being], before his ['Iesa (Jesus) or a Jew's or a Christian's] death (at the time of the appearance of the angel of death). And on the Day of Resurrection, he ['Iesa (Jesus)] will be a witness against them." From Hadeeth as translated: "Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, 'By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, son of Mary (Jesus) will shortly descend amongst you people (Muslims) as a just ruler and will break the Cross and kill the pig and abolish the Jizya (a tax taken from the non−Muslims, who are in the protection, of the Muslim government). Then there will be abundance of money and no body will accept charitable gifts.'"{Sahih Bukhari}

Ahmad أحمد: in the original Gospel and Bible 294

Habib u'l A'zam, Imam u'l Anbiya Sayyidina Muhammed ibn 'Abdullah,(53 B.H-11 A.H; 571-632 AD) ranks as the last prophet in Islam ("seal of the Prophets"). Muslims shun idolatry of any of the prophets, as their messages from God hold the most weight. His father's name was 'Abdullah ibn 'AbdulMuttalib and his mother's name was Amina bint Wahb az-Zuhriyya. Muhammed. Born in Mecca in 571 AD (53 AH), Muhammed spent the first part of his life as a well-travelled merchant. He would often spend his time in the mountains surrounding Mecca in prayer contemplating the situation with the city. At the age of forty, during one of those trips to the mountain, Muhammed began to, despite his illiteracy, receive and recite verses from Allah which today make up the Qur'an. He quickly spread the message he was receiving, converting a few others in the city, including his wife. He is the last (seal) of the prophets with a message to all humanity. When oppression became intolerable for his followers, Muhammed first asked his fellow Muslims to migrate to Medina and later himself migrated to Medina away from the oppressors in Mecca. Muhammad served not just as a prophet, but as a military leader who helped defeat the Meccans in 624 during the Battle of Badr. He continued to lead the Muslims as Islam spread across the Arabia. He performed the first Hajj in 629 and established Islam as it is still practised by Muslims today. Others continued Muhammad's legacy after his death in 632, having been given the position of Caliph (or successor) to Muhammad. The Five Pillars of Islam were established from his Hadiths after Muhammad's death.

Other prophets[edit | edit source]

Muslims believe in other prophets other than those mentioned by name in the Qur'an. Many verses in the Quran discuss this:

  • "And certainly We sent messengers (rasul) before you: there are some of them that We have mentioned to you and there are others whom We have not mentioned to you..."
  • "For We assuredly sent amongst every People a messenger..."

Muslims believe that God has sent 124,000 (or 224,000) prophets and 313 messengers all over the world, as mentioned by the prophet Muhammad in the Sahih Hadith.

Historic narratives suggest there existed a prophet named Khaled bin Sinan in pre-Islamic Arabia.

The Qur'an mentions Al-Imran as the father of Maryam. Al-Khidr is not mentioned by name, but is traditionally assumed to be referred to in . Biblical prophets Danyal (Daniel), Ishaia (Isaiah), Armya (Jeremiah), and Samuel are mentioned by Ibn Kathir in his book as prophets.

Luqman is mentioned in the sura named after him but it is unclear whether he is a prophet or a wali. According to the most wide-spread shiite belief, Luqman was a wiseman, not a prophet nor a wali. The reported news hold that Luqman had a dream, and in that dream he was asked to choose between being a King and a wiseman, and he chose the second.

Numerous other historical figures may rank as prophets, but debate and contention surround this matter. Such figures include: Zoroaster, Gautama Buddha, Socrates, Merlin, Confucius, Krishna, (also mentioned in some books of Hadith) and Rama. However, Muslims will state that there is no way of knowing for sure since they are not mentioned by name in the Qur'an. An argument often used in support of the prophethood of such men is that they came with the word of God, but it was later corrupted, this accounting for the differences between Islam, and the respective religions with which each man is associated. The Hadith and Qur’an support such claims that say that a messenger was sent to every people.

Maryam mother of 'Isa[edit | edit source]

A few scholars (such as Ibn Hazm) see Maryam as a nabi and a prophetess, since God sent her a message via an Angel. The Qur'an, however, does not explicitly state that she is one. According to the Islamic belief, she was a holy woman, but she was not a prophet. In the Qur'an, 'Isa is usually referred to as 'Isa ibn Maryam (Jesus, son of Mary), a matronymic, indicative of Jesus having no father.

See also[edit | edit source]

Notes[edit | edit source]

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